This video tutorial provides a review of the functional groups their respective structures that you need to know for your organic 1 & 2 course. It includes plenty of naming / nomenclature examples practice problems. You simply have to commit some of these basic functional groups to memorization. Once you know it, this topic will become easy.
Here is a list of functional groups that are covered in this video:
1. alkanes, alkenes, alkynes
2. alcohols, carboxylic acids, alkyl halides, haloalkanes
3. esters, ethers, amines, amides, nitriles, ammonium salts
4. ketones, aldehydes, & epoxides / oxirane
5. conjugated alkenes / alkadienes allenes / cumulated dienes
6. Substituents: methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, isopropyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, isobutyl, isopentyl, phenyl, benzyl, methoxy, ethoxy, hydroxy, amino, nitro, oxo.
7. Vinyl Halide, allyl halide, aryl halide, phenyl halide, benzyl halide, vicinal dihalide, geminal dihalide.
8. Aromatic Rings – Benzene, Pyridine, & Phenol
9. Cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, bicycloalkanes
10. Thiol, thioether, thioester, peroxyacid, peroxide, sulfonic acid
11. acid chlorides acid anhydrides
12. Alkoxides – methoxide, ethoxide, tert-butoxide, & phenoxide
13. Imine, Schiff base, Enamine, Vinyl Amine, Enol, Vinyl Alcohol, & The Enolate Ion
14. Amine, Phosphine, Hydroxyl Amine, Ammonium Salt, Phosphonium Salt, Diazonium Salt, & Azide
15. Radicals, Carbocations, Carbanions, & Carbenes
16. Crown ethers, Acetylide Ion, Halohydrins
17. Lactams vs Lactones
18. Hemiacetal, Acetal, Ketal, Hemiketal, & Hydrates,
19. Grignard reagent, organolithium, Gilman Reagent, Organo copper Lithium or dialkyl cuprate
20. Beta hydroxy aldehyde, b-diketones, alpha beta unsaturated ketones, beta ketone ester, malonic ester, acetoacetic ester